Tracing the Script and the Language of the Ancient Macedonians - Rosetta Stone

According to the perception of contemporary science, as well as the text being written in three scripts, two languages had been used: ancient Egyptian (written with hieroglyphs and in the demotic script) and ancient Greek (written in ancient Greek script)

A basic assumption of our research is that in writing the text on the Rosetta Stone three scripts were used, but in three languages: ancient Egyptian, written in the hieroglyphic script, ancient Macedonian, written in the demotic script, and ancient Greek written in the ancient Greek alphabet. It should be mentioned that one of the most significant and leading works in the field of study of the demotic script as well as the language, the new Egyptian language as it is called, is the Dictionary and Grammar of the Demotic Language, The Oriental Institute of Chicago, USA. Although it is clear and generally accepted that a syllabic script is in question, in this significant publication the authors point out that they are not capable being read sign by sign (syllable after syllable), but they suggest the text is written word after word, and at the same time supposing an absolute language identity in the forming of sentences, phrases and all the names of rulers and gods in the text in ancient Egyptian with the ancient Greek text.

The Rosetta Stone is one of the best known textual artifacts from ancient Egypt, object of a great number of studies and much research in the scholarly world of this field. It has its name because the location where it was excavated, that is Rosetta, i.e. El-Rashid in Arabic. It was discovered by a French soldier who had been working on excavating fortifications for the needs of Napoleon's army during his campaign in Egypt in the year 1799.

After a short military clash with the English army, when Napoleon won the battle, a peace treaty was signed in Alexandria in 1802. In accordance with the regulations of this peace treaty all the goods and artifacts possessed by the French army became the property of the British. On the basis of this, the Rosetta Stone was moved to England where it still is today and is one of the best-known exhibits at the British Museum in London. The Rosetta Stone is a stone of black granite, characterized with the following attributes: height 1.44m, width 0.72m,  thickness 0.28m and weight 762kg.

The special decree that had been inscribed on it, according to contemporary scholarship, was issued by the priests in order to glorify the pharaoh Ptolemy V Epiphany Eucharist one year after his coronation, more precisely, according to present-day calendar on 27th of March 196 B.C.

The appearances of the three parts of the text are available on the following links: hieroglyphic, demotic, ancient Greek.

The perceptions and results of our research in analyzing and deciphering the middle text of Rosetta Stone are presented here, starting from the assumption that the text in the demotic script was written in the language of the ancient Macedonians, i.e. in the ancient Macedonian language.

Click here to proceed to the complete text.

Contact:

A. Tentov, Ph.D       toto@feit.ukim.edu.mk
T. Bosevski, Ph.D

1. Basic characteristics of the script

Unlike the research by the Oriental Institute in Chicago, in our research of the demotic script we start from the fact: that it the syllabic script and we consider it sign by sign, i.e. syllable by syllable.

These are the basic characteristics of the script:

-  the direction of writing is form right to left;

-  there are no punctuation marks in today's sense;

-  there are no capital letters;

-  there is no division of words and use of blank space, it is written in an unbroken string;

-  the script used is the syllabic from the type consonant-vowel, with a minimal use of determined signs from pictographic writing.

The relatively wide range of the available text, of about 4500 signs, gives us an opportunity to identify the forms of the signs which are the basis of the script used. The most frequent ones are denoted: signs for isolated writing of consonants and signs for isolated writing of vowels.We also defined signs which are most probably the remains of some old pictographic script, and as such they represent a whole notion.

Especially intriguing is the method of writing the so-called ligatures, which according to us is a characteristic of the ancient Macedonian variation of this widely-used script in the given period of the Mediterranean - Asian civilization.

1.1. Identification of the syllabic signs

Unlike the research by the Oriental Institute in Chicago, in our research of the demotic script we start from the fact: that it the syllabic script and we consider it sign by sign, i.e. syllable by syllable.

These are the basic characteristics of the script:

  • the direction of writing is form right to left;
  • there are no punctuation marks in today's sense;
  • there are no capital letters;
  • there is no division of words and use of blank space, it is written in an unbroken string;
  • the script used is the syllabic from the type consonant-vowel, with a minimal use of determined signs from pictographic writing.

The relatively wide range of the available text, of about 4500 signs, gives us an opportunity to identify the forms of the signs which are the basis of the script used. The most frequent ones are denoted

asymmetrical syllabic signs
symmetrical syllabic signs
inclined syllabic signs
specific syllabic sign
signs for isolated writing of consonants
signs for isolated writing of vowels

We also defined signs which are most probably the remains of some old pictographic script, and as such they represent a whole notion. Click here to proceed to the pictographic signs.

Especially intriguing is the method of writing the so-called ligatures, which according to us is a characteristic of the ancient Macedonian variation of this widely-used script in the given period of the Mediterranean - Asian civilization.

1.1.1. Asymmetrical syllabic signs

The characteristic of the asymmetrical syllabic signs is it they can be written using 8 different dispositions on the writing surface to denote syllables using one consonant with 8 vowels in a monosemic (unambiguous) way.

We identified 13 asymmetrical signs in the analyzed text. They are the following:

as the signs for 13 consonants.

As mentioned above, each of these 13 signs in the writing surface, can be written in using 8 dispositions, as follows:

In this way, with only 13 different asymmetrical signs 13x8=104 syllables of the consonant-vowel type can be written in an unambiguous way.

The asymmetrical signs noted under the numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9, in the positions written under the numbers 1, 3, 5 and 7 were used in the 16th century as signs for writing numbers by the well-known mathematician Cardan, in his work Systems for Writing Numbers.

As in the analyzed text, where the consonant was determined by the form of the sign, and the vowel in the syllable was determined by the position of the sign, in his work Cardan determined the numbers with the form of the sign, and determined weights with their disposition (ones, tens, hundreds and thousands) in the number, as shown below.

If we recall that the Rosetta text dates from the second century B.C. and was written on the territory of Egypt, while Cardan was working in the 16th century A.D. in Italy, we can conclude that after 1800 years there was still a knowledge in the Mediterranean area about the signs in the Rosetta text.

1.1.2. Symmetrical syllabic signs

The characteristic of the symmetrical syllabic signs is that 4 different dispositions can be written on the writing surface to denote syllables of one consonant with four vowels in an unambiguous way. in the analyzed 6 signs were identified. They are the following:

as marks for 6 consonants.

Each of these 6 marks in the writing surface, can be written in with 4 dispositions, as follows:

In this way, using 6 different signs 6 x 4 = 24 different syllables of the consonant - vowel type can be written in a monosemic way.

1.1.3. Inclined syllabic signs

The inclined syllabic signs, like the symmetrical syllabic signs, can be written on the writing surface with 4 different dispositions to denote syllables of one consonant with four vowels in a monosemic way. They are the following:

Each of these 6 marks in the writing surface, can be written using 4 dispositions, as in the following example:

In this way, using 6 different signs 6 x 4 = 24 different syllables of the type consonant - vowel can be written in a monosemic way.

1.1.4. Specific syllabic sign

It should be specially emphasized that a specific sign occurs in the text, which we identified in four forms. They are:

The last form, two slanting lines brought nearer in the upper part of this syllabic sign, we find even today in many syllabic scripts of the Asian continent.

1.2. Signs for isolated writing

1.2.1. Signs for isolated writing of consonants

Some of the consonants in the text are found to be written separately, in the following form:

The slanting line in the composition of the basic sign in the first two is used with the function of virama, i.e. it eliminates the vowel of the corresponding syllable.

1.2.2. Signs for isolated writing of vowels

While writing, there was a need to write down an isolated vowel. Signs in only one position were used for writing down an isolated vowel. The following signs, which reflect to represent vowels, were identified in the text:

1.3. Pictographic signs

As a remnant of some older script in the analyzed text several signs occur which do not adapt to the syllabic concept. This refers mainly to the very frequently occurring three vertical lines and three slant lines:

which means an occurrence (that has been) already studied in the corresponding literature in this field.

Two other signs occur, but not very frequently, which cannot be syllabically explained either. They are the following:

The first sign represents a stylized form of the Egyptian god of the dead, and the second sign is a stylized form of a snake.

1.4. Writing of ligatures

It is obvious that in the text syllabic signs have not only been written next to each other, but they have also been written one above the other, as in the example:

We call these forms ligatures and we think that they reflect a specific characteristic of the language which was being expressed through the script.

In most cases there are 2 to 3 signs in the ligatures. As a rule, the beginning of a word was written with a ligature, whereas the end of the word whose beginning was written in a form of ligature was realized with one and very rarely with 2 to 3 syllables (signs).

2. Wiring for sound of the identified signs

The syllabic scripts contain the characteristics of the language that they are used to write much more than do the sound scripts.

If the basic assumption is that the analyzed text is written in the language of the ancient Macedonians, the determination of the sound characteristics of that language will be realized through the sound features of the domestic population in the Balkan area, as their parent territory. We assume that the sound values of the vowels and consonants, as mostly not liable to changes, have retained the same pronunciation up to the present day.

2.1. Wiring for sound of the syllabic signs

The wiring for sound of the identified syllabic signs can be realized by finding words in the text which have preserved their meaning to the present day in languages or dialects in the Balkan area or farther afield in the European area. In this phase the analysis will, of course, be based on a comparison between words from the text of the Rosetta Stone and archaisms from the dialects of the contemporary Macedonian language.

2.1.1. Wiring for sound of the asymmetrical syllabic signs

Using more than one hundred words from the contemporary Macedonian language, all 13 asymmetrical signs were wired for sound with corresponding consonants. They are:

the asymmetrical signs P[r] and J[j] in today's and in the ancient Macedonian script have the same form and the same sound. According to their written form the remaining asymmetrical signs are mutually similar, and in their pronunanciation, too, for example the asymmetrical signs Ж[zh], З[z], Ѕ[dz], С[s], Ц[ts], Ч[tch], Ш[sh], and Шт[sht].

Each of these 13 consonants on the writing surface, can be written using 8 dispositions and can denote syllables with 8 consonants, as in the example of the sign for the consonant J[j].

All 8 positions of writing are identified in the text, which means they have been wired for sound with all 6 active vowels in today's Slavic languages and the long forms of the vowels O[?] and E[?]which have been preserved in the contemporary Slovenian language, as well as in some of the dialects of the Macedonian language.

All forms of the asymmetrical signs with their wiring for sounds are presented in the following table.

2.1.2. Wiring for sound of the symmetrical syllabic signs

Using about 20 words from the contemporary Macedonian language, 6 symmetrical signs were wired for sound. They are:

No more than 4 positions for writing were found for each of the signs wired for sound in the text. The formation of syllables in the corresponding vowels is shown in the table, positions 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively.

In order to form a syllable with the vowel и[i], we identified that the signs of the consonants B[v] and Л[l] were written with the mark for virama and then the symbol for the vowel и[i] was added.

2.1.3. Wiring for sound of the inclined syllabic signs

Unlike the asymmetrical signs, where the vertical line is dominant in the basic sign, in the inclined signs an inclined line is dominant. And for these signs no more than 4 positions for writing were identified.

The formation of syllables with corresponding vowels is demonstrated in the table shown below, positions 3, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, respectively.

In the text the sign for the consonant Љ[lj] most frequently occurs in a syllable with the vowel y[u], which is also characteristic in the contemporary Macedonian language.

The first sign left to right in the analyzed text is a rotated form of the sign Б[b] for 45 degrees in the clockwise direction. No defining word for this sign has yet been found in today's Macedonian language, and our assumption is that most probably it represents the consonant Ф[f].

2.1.4. Wiring for sound of the specific syllabic signs

The specific syllabic sign which in form recalls the letter Д[d] in the Cyrillic alphabet was proved by wiring for sound in all its forms, such as:

Apart from our research, the syllabic sign Ди[di] has the same form of wiring for sound in the monograph Praslavyanskaya Pismenost by G.S. Grinevich, Moscow 1993.

2.2. Wiring for sound of the signs for isolated consonants

The frequent use was noted of some isolated consonants which were wired for sound in the following way:


  Л (Р)              В               Н                      П

The pronunciation of the isolated consonantchanges into soft P[r], sound which we have it even today in the pronunciation of words from the Macedonian language. It should be mentioned here that contemporary scholarship has concluded that it was during the Ptolemaic dynasty that a distinction was made for the first time between the sounds Л[l] and P[r], which was appropriately transferred into the script, i.e. in the analyzed text.

The pronunciation of the isolated consonant в[v] most frequently occurs in the formation of the syllable with the vowel и[i], or in the formation of the preposition во[vo] (equivalent to the English prepositions in, at), in original вв[vv] - ).

The inclined line without addition denotes the isolated consonant н[n] which is very frequently used in the contemporary Macedonian language.

2.3. Wiring for sound of the signs for isolated vowels

In the analyzed text, most frequently used sign is the vertical line (), which was wired for sound with the vowel и[i]. Besides the use of the vowel и[i] as a conjunction, it is also used at the end of the word for formation of the plural of nouns and adjectives.

The horizontal line ( ) was wired for sound with the vowel a[a]. It is also frequently used as a conjunction.

The wiring for sound of the identified signs for the vowels is the following:

2.4. Wiring for sound of the pictographic signs

The very frequent occurrence and the place of occurrence of the three vertical lines as a single sign suggests its meaning: БОГO [Bogo]. In the abovementioned monograph by O.S. Grinevich, this sign was wired for sound with БОГА [Boga]. We prove our conclusion by deciphering the adjective божен [bozhen] (equivalent to English divine), written down using syllabic signs previously formerly wired for sound in form  and their superlative form најбожен [naibozhen] (equivalent to English the most divine) .

The three inclined lines occur in a specific construction to define the term СВЕТОСТ [svetost](equivalent in English the Eminence), in original inscribed as:

which was wired for sound as (the way it is read from right to left):
оТ(Р)ЛадопсоГ еВeeЗаН ИоМ еЃИ оТ(Р)ЛадопсоГ еВeeЗаН ИоМ
[ot(r)ladopsog  eveezan iom  ejgi  ot(r)ladopsog eveezan iom]
  

which was translated into Macedonian as
Господарите на Господарите [gospodarite na gospodarite]
(equivalent to English Masters of the Masters)
or 
Gospodin Gospodin [gospodin gospodin]
(equivalent to English Master Master)

which associates with present-day title and addressing His Beatitude - the Head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church Господин Господин [gospodin gospodin], which is the way of addressing heads among the Orthodox churches.

In another form, it occurs as a synonym of the pharaohs, i.e. for "Our Living Masters," originally inscribed in form                                                                                                 

which was wired for sound as (the way it is read from right to left):
aТ(Р)ЛадопсоГ еВeeЖаН ИоМ
[at(r)ladopsog eveehzan iom]
                                               

and translated into contemporary Macedonian language:
Моите живи господари [moite zhivi gospodari]
(equivalent to English My Living Masters)

If for the sign we conclude the pronunciation of soft P[r], as is the case in contemporary Macedonian language, then from the analysis of the previous examples of the three inclined lines we can definitely give the wiring for sound of ГОСПОДА [gospoda] (equivalent to English Masters).

2.5. Wiring for sound of the ligatures

The signs used for writing ligatures have preserved their sound value: they were mutually connected with the preposition на [na] (equivalent to the English prepositions on, at), if written next to each other or one above the other, as in the example:

Usually the ligatures were written at the beginning of the word, and the word was ended by adding 1 or 2 syllabic signs. In some cases two successive words can be connected with a ligature, which makes the process of the division of words additionally difficult in a continuously written text. Most frequently 2 to 3 signs were used in a ligature.

3. Some rules for writing

By identification or wiring for sound of the syllabic signs, the findings for writing isolated consonants and vowels so far described, as well as deciphering the ligatures, certain necessary conditions were discovered for a further analysis of the rules for writing and reading the analyzed text.

3.1. Writing superlatives of adjectives

Writing the syllabic signs one on the other or one over the other, it is possible to form superlative forms of adjectives in an effective way in those languages which do not contain the prefix нај_[nai] (equivalent to English the ....._est/the most .....). In that case the basic form of the adjective was written above the sign for the syllable Jь[jь].

In the analyzed text, more cases of formation of superlative form in this way were identified, such as:                                                  

In the dictionary of identified words, 8 different words were added to the basic and superlative form, written in this way, and which have the same meaning to this very da

3.2. Writing the plural of nouns

In many Slavic languages, and especially in the Macedonian language, the plural of nouns and adjectives if often formed by adding и[i] at the end of the noun in singular. In the analyzed text, we also identified the formation of the plural in this way, as in the example:

Equivalent to English

Lord          ---->        Lords           Priest            ---->         Priests

In the dictionary of the identified words, 5 words were added in the singular and plural formed in this way, and they have kept the same meaning to this very day.

3.3. Non-defining and defining form of nouns

While reading the analyzed text we identified nouns in the definite and indefinite form, as:


in the singular, as well as

in the plural.

The definite article is то [to], and for the plural is та [ta], equivalent in English the.

In several other cases the definite form of nouns was made by adding мо [mo] (some type of case form) as in the example:

We can conclude from our analyses to date that except in these cases, we have very rarely identified other case forms.

4. Mentioning the name of the emperor (pharaoh)

Mentioning the name of the emperor (pharaoh) in the analyzed text is the most frequently occurring composition of words. According to the findings of our research and in accordance with the suggested wiring for sound of the signs, addressing the ruler was very similar with today's way of addressing the contemporary rulers.

4.1. The title of the emperor (pharaoh)

From what has been said to date we can identify 2 words when the name of the emperor is mentioned as 2 superlatives, from right to left:

Translated into contemporary Macedonian language :

Најнаочит именец [nainaotchit imenets],
(
equivalent to English the most honorable name).

Најживени (Вечен) [naizhiveni] ([vetchen])
(
equivalent to English for ever living).                                    

The Greek words (се чита одлево надесно).

4.2. The name of the emperor (pharaoh)

We have concluded that after the title follows the name of the emperor, which is not formal in today's sense, but is descriptive:

Translated to contemporary Macedonian language: Тој кому боговите му се диват (восхитуваат)[toi komu bogovite mu se divat (voshituvaat)] (equivalent to English He who is beloved by the gods).

The Macedonian name is translated into ancient Greek with the words:

The word  in ancient Greek means богови [bogovi] (equivalent to the English gods), and the word means That one who is beloved by the gods. The accuracy of the suggested way of reading and wiring for sound is more than clear from this.

The method of forming personal names with word Bogo [bogo]is very frequent in contemporary Macedonian language. The following names are very frequent: Bogomil[bogomil], Bogoljub [bogoljub], Bogovid [bogovid], Bozidar [bozhidar], Bozana [bozhana] and others.

4.3. The family name of the emperor (pharaoh)

The family name of the emperor, i.e. the name of the dynasty was recognized in the expressions (read from right to left):

Translated into contemporary Macedonian for the name of the dynasty was obtained in a descriptive form:

наиценето наисемејство од град на карпа изградениот
[naitseneto naisemeistvo od grad na karpa izgradeniot]

(
equivalent to English the most respected the most family from town on the stone built)
           

The following expression was used for translation in the ancient Greek text

Which is read by present day scholarship in succession as one word

The first wordis a term for town,is a preposition, ands a goddess of (the) earth of the ancient Greeks.

This practically means that the termmeans in ancient Greek town of the goddess of (the) earth, which coincides completely with our reading of the corresponding term in the middle text of the stone.

4.4. The nickname (public name) of the emperor (pharaoh)

When the emperor is mentioned with all his titles and full name and family name, or when only his family name is mentioned, it always ends with the expression (read from right to left):

which translated into contemporary Macedonian language means:
Наречен наниза на Ѓупаците
[narechen naniza na gjupatsite]

(equivalent to English Called necklace of necklaces of the Gypsies (Egyptians)).

5. Mentioning the names of the emperor's (pharaoh's) ancestors

5.1. The names of the emperor's (pharaoh's) parents

The names of the parents are found together in several places of the text, and the father's name stands alone in certain places.

The mother's name is:

The father's name is:

In one place where pharaoh's mother and father are mentioned, the mother is addressed with the title woman pharaoh besides her name, which in original was written as:

5.2. The names of the emperor's (pharaoh's) ancestors

Taking into consideration that the decree on the stone was ordered in the time of Pharaoh Ptolemy V, the names of all his 4 ancestors were found (father, grandfather, great grandfather and great-great grandfather). They were put in the second and third row, as well as in the 22nd row of the text in ancient Macedonian language. The order of mentioning the ancestors at the end of the second line and the beginning of the third one begins with the eldest (the founder of the dynasty, Alexander's General Soter) and it ends with the name of the pharaoh's father. Mentioning the ancestors in the 22nd row starts with the name of the pharaoh's father, and ends with the first in the dynasty (emperor's great-great grandfather).

The following are the names:


1) The meaning of the name Soteres (Sotir) is to this day Savour, Hero
2) The meaning of the name Eurgetai is Founder of church/monastery, Sponsor, Benefactor

In the second and third line, where the ancestor have been mentioned from the eldest to the pharaoh's father, among their names the noun ДЕЦА [detsa] (equivalent to English children) has the meaning of successors. As a result of that, in original we find the following text:

We have pointed this out because of the fact the beginning of the third line is missing because that part of the stone is broken off. By emphasizing this, we want to demonstrate and stress what must have stood in that place originally. This is marked by a rectangle with a broken line and filled with color in the part of the restoration of the original text giving the ancestor's names. It is important to point out that this way of mentioning a person's ancestors is absolutely identical with the way it is done in the Bible.

5.3. The names of the wives of the emperor's (pharaoh's) ancestors

In several places in the text the names of the wives of the emperor's ancestors are mentioned, such as:

When the wife's name was mentioned, according to the rules, the husband's first name preceded by the word имо [imo] followed, as in the example (read from right to left):
оТИеЅаНьЈаН еЖиШН оМИ ьЈоМоЈьВаНагоБ еВиД аНеЖоБјаН

which in contemporary Macedonian means
Најбожена се восхитува на најголем мој бог
[najbozhena se voshituva na najgolem moi bog]

equivalent in English
The most divine woman beloves my greatest god
Имо [imo] (equivalent to English wife of)
И нашиот најочит [i nashiot naiochit]

(equivalent in English
And our the most honorable)
i.e.: Arsinoe Philopator,

as well as (from right to left):

 
еМИеП уЉеЖ оМИ еЈоМ ьВеС агоБ оЈьВаН

which means:
Најголем бог, победо моја [najgolem bog pobedo moia]
(equivalent in English The greatest god victory of mine)

Имо [imo] (equivalent to English wife of)
Жељу пеиме [zhelju peime] (equivalent to English Benefactor)
i.e. Berenice Eurgetai

This special way of addressing the wives by emphasizing their names followed by the first names of their husbands is found event to this day in a slightly changed form in the western part of Macedonia, where the wife is addressed by the name of her husband and adding the word ица[itsa].

6. Categories of young maids

In the analyzed text we succeeded in deciphering the categories of young maids that are present and mentioned in the ancient Greek text, such as:

which means:
Нејзе боговите сите и се диват     Нејзе боговите сите и се диват
[neize bogovite site i se divat             neize bogovite site i se divat]

(equivalent in English      
Her the gods belove her all Her the gods belove her all)
i.e. Athlophoroi

It must be stressed here that we find the same form of address, as will be explained, in the case of the term of address СВЕТИ [sveti](equivalent to English Sacred), as [gospodin gospodin] (equivalent to English
Master Master).

For the title Kanephoroi we found:        


which means
Се диви (восхитува) на богот Ананнеца (бог на обновата)
[se divi (voshituva) na bogot Ananetsa (bog na obnovata]

(equivalent to English
She admires the god Ananetsa (the god of restoration, renewal))
i.e. Kanephoroi

According to our research the god Ananetsa was a supreme Egyptian god, and this is an Egyptian name for the god who was known to the ancient Greeks as the god Osiris.

7. Categories of priests

In the text, in addition to the word for priest шемо [shemo] (equivalnet in English Priest), we find priests' titles, such as:

We must mention that in the south-west part of Macedonia, i.e. in the wider region of present settlement Ptolemaida which is situated in northern Greece, among the Macedonian population we find the family name Шемови [shemovi], which according to our findings would have to correspond to the contemporary family name Попови [popovi] (equivalent in English Priests).

8. Deciphering the last line of the text

According to the ancient Greek text, in the last line the pharaoh orders (in the following succession) the decree to be written in 3 script and to be placed in the temples of (the) first, (the) second and (the) third rank near the statue of the pharaoh, although just here a part of the stone is broken off (the part is missing).

In the analyzed text, the pharaoh's order was identified in a different succession, first in which three classes of the temples of gods, then in which three regions of the country a stone should be placed, and finally, in which scripts in the language of the three circles of the population it should be written.

The pharaoh divided his wish into two orders beginning with the word јави [javi] (equivalent in Englis ordered) in the original form written (from right to left) with[ivьj].

8.1. Analysis of the first order

The first order begins with the expression to be made of stone, in the original written as:

The order continues with:

which means:
Камени градби (храмови) на:
Богот Змија од устието, Бога од Асуан и Бога Нашион.  
[kameni gradbi (hramovi) na:
bogot zmija na ustieto, boga od asuan i boga nashion]

(equivalent to English
Stone construction (temples) of:
God Snake of the Mouth, the God of Asswan and our God.)

The order continues with the names of the three regions of the land, the first is Egypt, the second asswan, and the third is the land of the greatest God Cho NaThnani, the expression written in original:

Equivalent in English
In Egypt   In all of Sinai  The greatest god Cho of Thnani   

In respect of the Greek text, here we find significantly more precise information which indirectly proves the primary importance of this text in respect of the other two.

8.2. Analysis of the second order

The second order begins with the expression:
Да биде на камен навезено (напишано) 
[da bide na kamen navezeno (napishano)]

(equivalent to English
To be on stone embroidered (written))

Written in the original with the expression

In this case, for the word written the term embroidered is used, which is to this day figuratively used for writing in some dialects of the Macedonian language.

In the analyzed text, a single identification is used for stating the identity of the scripts and languages in which the decree was to be written, or a social circle in a multi - ethnic society of that time Egypt.

The Supreme (High) Priests, presented with the original expression

The Alive Masters, presented with the original expression

The Danai presented with the original expression

The second order ends with the expression written in original as:

Писма во камен тврд
[pisma vo kamen tvrd]

(equivalent to English
(Scripts in stone hard)

We can conclude from the contents of the second order that for the upper text (hieroglyphs - sacred script) the expressionscript of  The Supreme (High) Priests was used. The expressionscript of  the Alive Masters was used for the middle script (demotic), and those were the Ancient Macedonians. But the term The Danai was used for the lowest text (ancient Greek).

From the example of the contents of the last line of the decree, which in all probability has the same contents with the three texts, due to the different structure of the languages it is not possible to accept that those texts are totally identical, especially because of the different pronunciation of the names of the peoples, gods and emperors (pharaohs).

If we bear in mind that our own personal names in those times had the same descriptive character, in translating the text from one language into another, the personal names were also translated in accordance with their meaning, and obtained a completely different pronunciation.

9. Names of the territories and peoples

9.1. Names of territories

Since the text in the stones primarily refers to the territory of Egypt, we find the name of Egypt most frequently, not only when the whole territory of Egypt has to be inscribed, but also the names of Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

In original the name of Egypt is the following:

This name comes from the analysis of the pharaoh's order written in the last line in demotic text, in the part which gave the territories where, in the corresponding temples of certain gods, the stone was to be placed.

The name of Egypt in ancient Greek is АIГYПТОN.
The name of Upper Egypt in original is:
The name of Lower Egypt in original is:

It is known that the Mouth of the Nile is in Lower Egypt. In the original the term is the following:

The findings that the term Узе [uze] in ancient Macedonian is today pronounce УСТИЕ [ustie], comes directly from the analysis of the last line in the text. In the order which mentions the gods in whose temples the stone with the decree by Ptolemy V Epiphany Eucharist had to be placed, i.e. in ancient Macedonian НајЖeВеНе ТојьБогаМо ДиВеЈeИ ьПоТоЛ НаШиВеЈь (The Immortal He Whom the Gods Admire from the town on stone built, as today we would say) it says that one of them is the God Snake Of Uze. It is generally accepted that the God Snake was the God of the Nile Delta, i.e. of its mouth.

The word па [pa](equivalent to English well) in the ancient Macedonian was used in linking constructions when numbering before an article in the sequence being stated. An example for this is giving the scripts in which the decree was to be written, in the last line, where before the script of the Alive Masters there is the linking construction и на пајь [i na pai] (equivalent to English as well as). The term understood in this way, read from right to left as ЃьПа [gjьpa], denotes Upper Egypt.

In order to prove that our assertion is correct, that the terms ЃьЗе and ЃьПа in ancient Macedonian match the terms Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt respectively, a thorough analysis was conducted of the places in the text where in the ancient Greek text these two parts of ancient Egypt are mentioned, and a comparison was made with the places where the two previously mentioned terms were found in the ancient Macedonian text. For instance, the following is written in the 12th line of the demotic text for the terms Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt:      

(equivalent in English
Lower and Upper Egypt)

which completely corresponds with the mention of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt in the ancient Greek text.

9.2. Names of peoples

In the analyzed text, while stating the names of the pharaoh's ancestors, in the 22nd line of the middle text of the stone, the peoples whom they ruled are also mentioned. After the name of the Philopator (НьШе Же НајЅеИто [nьshe zhe naidzeito] - И Нашиот НајСветол [i nashiot naisvetol] (Equivalent in English - And Our Most Bright), for the peoples whom he ruled was written in the original:

еНаПьЃаН     о    еВьЈаНаД На

which means in today's Macedonian
[na danajtsive i na gjuptsite].

Equivalent in English
To the Danai (the Greeks) and to the Gypsies).

After the names of Eurgetai (ЖеЉу Пе ИМе [zelju po ime] - Добродетел [dobrodetel] - (Equivalent in English Benefactor)) and Adelphoi (ЅеВо [dzevo] - Светол [svetol]

(Equivalent in English Bright) for the peoples whom they ruled was written in the original

which means in contemporary Macedonian
[na danajtsive i na egipetskite danajtsi i na gjuptsite],

Equivalent in English
To the Danai (the Greeks),
To the Egyptian Danai (the Egyptian Greeks) and To the Gypsies).

It is interesting to consider the third ethnic group besides the Danai and the Gypsies, i.e. the Egyptian Danai. This means that besides the Danai ethnic group on the Balkans at the time of the first ruler from the Ptolemy dynasty, there existed a separate danai entity on the territory of Egypt. Toward the end of the 11th line in the demotic text this entity is mentioned in the original as:

In English this denotes the Danai from Upper Egypt, by which their territory was determined.

10. Names of gods and their functions

In the middle text of the Rosetta Stone we find the names and functions of many gods. As a result of their titles, which literally meant a characteristic of the language and writing of the ancient Macedonians, we were able to identify names of several Egyptian gods even in the original way that they were called in ancient Egyptian. In the analyzed text we also found the names, most probably, of all the gods of the ancient Macedonians.

10.1. Names of gods and their functions for the ancient Macedonians

According to our research, in the middle text we were able to read the names of most probably all gods of the ancient Macedonians. For a certain number of gods we are able to determine their functions, too. It is most characteristic that almost all gods' names are monosyllabic. Their names and functions are the following:

   

In contemporary Macedonian:

In contemporary Macedonian:

Бога Хо         Бога Џо          Бога Ли           Бога Лча           Бога Ка              Бога Змија
[boga ho]       [boga dzho]      [boga li]      [boga ltcha]     [boga ka]           [boga zmia]

God Ѕе [dze] is a supreme god, god of the summers and of the light (the sun) (in ancient Greek text inscribed as
God Са [sa] is god of the gardens and vineyards (planting)
God Ве [ve] is god of the builders (craftsmen)
God Во [vo] is god of waters
God Ви [vi]
God Де [de]
God Хо [ho] is god of war (spearmen)
God Џо [dzho]
God Ли [li] is god of forests (autumn), of renovation (in ancient Greek text inscribed as )
God ЛЧа [ltcha]is goddess of the light ray/sunrise (in ancient Greek text inscribed as )
God Ка [ka] was also found among the Sumerians in the shape of a snake
God Змија [zmia] The God Snake

We concluded the god Se [dze](by his function god of the summers) was a supreme god because in the text he is addressed very similarly to a pharaoh, i.e. with two epithets in the superlative, of which only the second one is different. Instead of Најжевени [naizheveni] (equivalent to English forever living) which was used when addressing the pharaoh, is Најсветол [naisvetol] (equivalent to English The most Bright), and in the original it is the following:

This in contemporary Macedonian (in translation) means:
Најнаочит именец, најсветли по наше богот на летата.
[nainaochit  imenets    naisvetii  po  nashe bogot na  letata]

equivalent to English:
The most honorable, the most bright according to our way of saying the god of summers).

10.2. Names of the gods and their functions among the ancient Egyptians

The style of addressing the Egyptians gods is especially interesting in the text. After the name of the god as he was called in ancient Egyptian, there follows in addition the way he was named in ancient Macedonian. In the original it was written down in the following way:

In translation in contemporary Macedonian language:
Богот Ананеца на египќаните (богот на обновувањето), по наше богот Ли.
[bogot ananetsa  na egipkjanite     bogot  na obnovuvanjeto    po nashe bogot   li]

(equivalent to English:                
The god Ananetsa of the Egyptians (the god of renovation), according to our way of saying the god Lee),

as well as the expression

in translation into contemporary Macedonian:
Ананета бога ЛЧа (богиња на светлосниот зрак)
[ananeta boga ltcha boginja na    svetlosniot     zrak]

(equivalent to English:
Ananeta god LTCHa goddess of the light ray/sunrise)

According to the legends Ananeta was sister to the god Ananetsa.
In the original text we found this form of address which refers to the goddess Ananeta and the god Ananetsa:

in translation into contemporary Macedonian:
Ананета бога ЛЧа (богиња на светлосниот зрак)
Богот Ананеца (богот на обновувањето), по наше богот Ли.

[ananeta boga ltcha boginja na svetlosniot zrak]
[bogot ananetsa bogot na obnovuvanjeto po nashe bogot li]

(equivalent to English:
Ananeta god LTCHa (goddess of the light ray/sunrise)
The god Ananetsa (the god of renovation), according to our way of saying the god Lee).

In the ancient Greek text these gods were as Osiris, which coresponds to Ananetsa, and Isis, corresponding to Ananeta.

Our research in this area is completely different from that of contemporary scholarship. Namely, according to generally accepted attitude today with the researchers of the hieroglyphic script, the gods' names in ancient Egyptian were written down in the way they were found in the ancient Greek text, i.e. like Osiris and Isis respectively.

11. Vocabulary

Appendix

Dictionary of deciphered words and terms from the middle text of the Rosetta Stone.