The Rosetta Stone is one of the best known textual artifacts from ancient
This paper presents the results of research realized within the project “Deciphering the Middle Text of the Rosetta Stone”, supported by
In the paper, it is assumed that a syllabic script of the type consonant-vowel was used for the middle text of the Rosetta Stone. Symbols for 27 consonants were identified. By using the procedure of mirroring and rotation in the writing surface (plain), a monosemic (unambiguous) way was determined for connecting the symbol of consonant with 4 or 8 vowels. Although rarely used, the symbols for writing isolated vowels and some consonants were identified. In the analyzed text, the syllabic signs were not only written next to each other, but also they were often written one above the other in the form of what are known as ligatures. A small number of pictographic symbols were also identified.
The wiring for sound of the identified syllable signs, isolated consonants or vowels and ligatures was achieved by using archaisms from the dialects of the contemporary Macedonian language. In the text, which was written from right to left, without space between the words and without separation of sentences in an infinite series, more than 200 different words were identified which have kept their meaning in some dialects of the contemporary Macedonian language. A certain number of grammatical rules were also identified which are discerned in the contemporary Macedonian language, such as the formation of superlative of the adjectives with the prefix нај_ [nai] (equivalent to the English the …… _est/ the most ……); the plural of nouns by adding и[i] (equivalent to the English _s); the occurrence of definite and indefinite form of nouns, the frequent use of the preposition на[na] (equivalent to the English prepositions on, at,), as well as passive and active form of verbs. With these identified syllables and their wiring for sound and the definite rules for writing, a monosemic (unambiguous) methodology was generated in order to make out certain words and to read what was written.
The results of deciphering the middle text of the Rosetta Stone point to the fact that there are many details which cannot be found in the text inscribed in uncial (ancient Greek) alphabet. This conclusion proves the science awareness from the time of Thomas Young (1822) that the middle text was the original. On the basis of our research we can make this knowledge more precise with the conclusion that the pharaoh’s decree from the middle text of the Rosetta Stone in original is inscribed in the language of the ancient Macedonians with letters of the alive (living) masters of that time, i.e. with the official letters and language of the state that had been ruled by them for more than a century.
Keywords: Ancient Macedonians, script, language,
The Rosetta Stone is one of the best known textual artifacts from ancient
The importance of the Rosetta Stone and the interest it has aroused in the scientific and scholarly world are based on the fact that special decree had been inscribed on it, which, according to contemporary scholarship, was issued by the priests in order to glorify the pharaoh Ptolemy V Epiphany Eucharist one year after his coronation, according to the present-day calendar on 27th March 196 B.C. The special interest arises because this decree was written in three different scripts: in hieroglyphs, in so called demotic script and in the uncial alphabet. On the basis of the text written in the uncial alphabet, in 1822 the well-known French scientist Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script using the ancient Egyptian language for wiring for sound, , , .
According to the perceptions of contemporary science , , , as well as the text being written in three scripts, two languages had been used: ancient Egyptian, in the text written with hieroglyphs and in the demotic script, and ancient Greek in the text written in uncial alphabet. The thesis that three scripts and three languages are used on the Rosetta Stone was widely accepted until the beginning of the 20th century, . Due to the difficulties in determining and deciphering the third language, which was used to write the middle text of the stone, in the first decade of the 20th century the thesis that three scripts and two languages were used on the stone began to predominate, . Consequently, current scholarship supports the theory that two scripts: the hieroglyphic and the demotic, were used to inscribe the decree on the Rosetta Stone in ancient Egyptian language , , .
A basic assumption of our research is that in writing the text on the Rosetta Stone three scripts were used, but in three languages: ancient Egyptian, written in the hieroglyphic script, ancient Macedonian, written in the demotic script, and ancient Greek written in the uncial alphabet. This assumption is based on the fact that the rulers of
Figure 1 - The appearance of the middle text of the Rosetta Stone
It is known that the demotic script is syllabic in character,    , which mean that each sign represents one syllable of the consonant–vowel type. It must be mentioned that the demotic script has been in the past and is still today a subject of intensive research , , , . Although it is clear and generally accepted that a syllabic script is in question, in the significant publication, , the authors point out that they are not capable to read the variant of the demotic script used in Ptolemaic period sign by sign. Accordingly, they suggest the text could be read word after word, and at the same time supposing an absolute language identity in the forming of sentences, phrases and all the names of rulers and gods in the text in ancient Egyptian (Demotic) with the ancient Greek text
In the text that follows, the perceptions and results of our research in analyzing and deciphering the middle text of the Rosetta Stone are presented, starting from the assumption that the text in the demotic script was written in the language of the ancient Macedonians, i.e. in the ancient Macedonian language.
In the first section, the basic characteristics of the analyzed script are given, as well as the procedure of wiring for sound the syllabic signs, wiring for sound of pure consonants, of pure vowels and the way of reading and wiring for sound the pictographic signs and ligatures.. Unlike the research by the Oriental Institute in Chicago , in our research of the demotic script we start from the basic fact: that is the syllabic script and we consider it sign by sign, i.e. syllable by syllable.
In the second section, by applying the rules for wiring for sound presented in the first section chapter, the following things are presented: the formation of the superlative of adjectives, the method of making the plural of nouns, the formation of definite and indefinite forms of nouns, and passive and active forms of verbs.
The third section is a thorough examination of the most frequently met composition of words in the text, i.e. titles, the first name, family name and nickname of the emperor.
In the fourth section a detailed analysis of the last row of the text is presented. The basic reason for this is the fact that here an order was given indicating in which temples, in which lands and with what kinds of scripts the decree was to be written.
In the fifth section the names of the territories and peoples that we find in the text are considered. We succeeded in identifying what the ancient Macedonians used to call Egypt, both parts of Egypt – Lower and Upper Egypt, as well as the ancient Macedonian name for Sinai. The names of the ethnic groups living in the ancient Egypt are also mentioned in the text.
In the sixth section the names of the ancient Macedonians’ gods are presented. For some of them we managed to figure out their function as gods, too. In the text we also identify the names of some ancient Egyptian gods, in the way they were named in original, in ancient Egyptian.
A conclusion is added at the end of the text.
The relatively wide range of the available text, of about 4500 signs, gives us an opportunity to identify the forms of the signs which are the basis of the script used. The most frequent ones are denoted asymmetrical, symmetrical and inclined (slanting) signs. The main characteristics of the script and the initially identified signs are presented in details in our previous work, . In the text bellow we will focus our attention to the process of wiring for sound of the signs. We will notify as well the new additional signs, compared with , which we were able to detect in the meantime within our research activities.
If the basic assumption is that the analyzed text is written in the language of the ancient Macedonians, the determination of the sound characteristics of that language will be realized through the sound features of the domestic population in the Balkan area, as their parent territory. We assume that the sound values of the consonants and vowels, as mostly not liable to changes, have retained the same pronunciation up to the present day.
The wiring for sound of the identified syllabic signs can be realized by finding words in the text which have preserved their meaning to the present day in languages or dialects in the Balkan area or farther afield in the European area. In this phase the analysis will, of course, be based on a comparison between words from the text of the Rosetta Stone and archaisms from the dialects of the contemporary Macedonian language.
Using more than one hundred words from the contemporary Macedonian language, all 13 (thirteen) asymmetrical signs were wired for sound with corresponding consonants. They are:
In the previous figure we have one new sign () compared with , and we wired it for sound as Шт[sht].
Table 1 - Asymmetrical Signs and Their Wiring for Sound
The asymmetrical signs Ј[j], and Р[r] in today’s and in the ancient Macedonian script have the same form and the same sound. According to their written form the remaining asymmetrical signs are mutually similar, and in their pronunciation, too, for example the asymmetrical signs Ж[zh], З[z], and Ѕ[dz]. The similarity in writing and in the pronunciation also applies to the asymmetrical signs С[s], Ц[ts], Ч[tch], as well as Ш[sh], and Шт[sht].
Each of these 13 consonants on the writing surface (plane) can be written using 8 dispositions and can denote syllables with 8 vowels. All 8 (eight) positions of writing are identified in the text, which means they have been wired for sound with all 6 active vowels in today’s Slavic languages and the long forms of the vowels O[ọ] and E[ẹ] which have been preserved in the contemporary Slovenian language [1, 2], as well as in some of the dialects of the Macedonian language (Miyatchki and Vevtchanski, ). All forms of the asymmetrical signs with their wiring for sounds are presented in the table 1.
Each of these 13 consonants on the writing surface (plane) can be written using 8 dispositions and can denote syllables with 8 vowels. All 8 (eight) positions of writing are identified in the text, which means they have been wired for sound with all 6 active vowels in today’s Slavic languages and the long forms of the vowels O[ọ] and E[ẹ] which have been preserved in the contemporary Slovenian language [1, 2], as well as in some of the dialects of the Macedonian language (Miyatchki and Vevtchanski, ).
All forms of the asymmetrical signs with their wiring for sounds are presented in the table 1.
Using about 20 words from the contemporary Macedonian language, 6 symmetrical signs were wired for sound.
No more than 4 positions for writing were found for each of the signs wired for sound in the text. The formation of syllables in the corresponding vowels is shown in the table 2, positions 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively.
Table 2 - Symmetrical and Inclined Signs and Their Wiring for Sound
In order to form a syllable with the vowel и[i], we identified that the signs of the consonants В[v] and Л[l] were written with the mark for virama and then the symbol for the vowel и[i] was added.
Unlike the asymmetrical signs, where the vertical line is dominant in the basic sign, in the inclined signs an inclined line is dominant. And for these signs no more than 4 positions for writing were identified. The formation of syllables with corresponding vowels is shown in the table 2, positions 3, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, respectively.
In the previous figure we have two new signs ( ), and ( ) compared with , and we wired it for sound as Њ[nj], and Ќ[kj].
The specific syllabic sign which in form recalls the letter Д[d] in the Cyrillic alphabet was proved by wiring for sound in all its forms, such as:
Apart from our research, the syllabic sign Ди[di] has the same form of wiring for sound in the monograph , as well as in glagolitsa, as it is presented in .
The frequent use was noted of some isolated consonants which were wired for sound in the following way:
The pronunciation of the isolated consonant changes into soft Р[r], sound which we have it even today in the pronunciation of words from the Macedonian language. It should be mentioned here that contemporary scholarship has concluded that it was during the Ptolemaic dynasty that a distinction was made for the first time between the sounds Л[l] and Р[r], which was appropriately transferred into the script, i.e. in the analyzed text. The pronunciation of the isolated consonant в[v] most frequently occurs in the formation of the syllable with the vowel и[i] or in the formation of the preposition во[vo] (equivalent to the English prepositions in, at) in original вв[vv] - .
The pronunciation of the isolated consonant в[v] most frequently occurs in the formation of the syllable with the vowel и[i] or in the formation of the preposition во[vo] (equivalent to the English prepositions in, at) in original вв[vv] - .
In the analyzed text, most frequently used sign is the vertical line ( | ), which was wired for sound with the vowel и[i]. Besides the use of the vowel и[i] as a conjunction, it is also used at the end of the word for formation of the plural of nouns and adjectives.
The horizontal line () was wired for sound with the vowel а[a]. It is also frequently used as a conjunction. The wiring for sound of the identified signs for the vowels is the following:
The three inclined lines occur in a specific construction to define the term СВЕТОСТ [Svetost] (equivalent in English the Eminence), in original inscribed as (from right to left):
That is equivalent to English Master Master.
It is for the sign we conclude the pronunciation of soft Р[r], as is the case in contemporary Macedonian language, then from the analysis of the previous examples of the three inclined lines we can definitely give the wiring for sound of ГОСПОДА [gospoda] (equivalent to English Masters).
The signs used for writing ligatures have preserved their sound value: they were mutually connected with the preposition на[na] (equivalent to the English prepositions on, at,), if written one on or one above the other, as in the example (readed from right to left):
Usually the ligatures were written at the beginning of the word, and the word was ended by adding 1 or 2 syllabic signs. In some cases two successive words can be connected with a ligature, which makes the process of the division of words additionally difficult in a continuously written text. Most frequently 2 to 3 signs were used in a ligature.
By identification and wiring for sound of the syllabic signs, the findings for writing isolated consonants and vowels so far described, as well as deciphering the ligatures, certain necessary conditions were discovered for a further analysis of the rules for writing and reading the analyzed text.
Writing the syllabic signs one on the other or one over the other, it is possible to form superlative forms of adjectives in an effective way in those languages which do not contain the prefix нај_ [nai] (equivalent to English the …… _est/ the most ……). In that case the basic form of the adjective was written above the sign for the syllable Jь[jь].
In the analyzed text, more cases of formation of superlative form in this way were identified, and we are giving below some examples of them, such as:
In many Slavic languages, and especially in the Macedonian language, the plural of nouns and adjectives is often formed by adding и[i] at the end of the noun in singular. In the analyzed text, we also identified the formation of the plural in this way, as in the example:
It is very important to mention that in , the authors are claming that for forming the plural of nouns a vertical line was added at the end of the word. However, in contrast to our research and findings, the authors treat the sign for vertical line only as a simple mark for the plural. This is completely comprehensible if it is known that according to  it is not possible to read the demotic script sign for sign (in accordance with our findings that corresponds to reading/writing syllable for syllable), but is being read word for word.
While reading the analyzed text we identified nouns in the definite and indefinite form, in the singular, as well as in the plural.
The definite article for singular is то[to], and for the plural is та[ta], equivalent in English the.
In several other cases the definite form of nouns was made by adding мо[mo] (some type of case form) as in the example:
Mentioning the name of the pharaoh in the analyzed text is the most frequently occurring composition of words. There are several different ways of mentioning the personal and/or surname, and the nickname of the pharaoh, but in this section text we are presenting the longest form. The other forms of mentioning the emperor in the analyzed text are with smaller lengths. According to the findings of our research and in accordance with the suggested wiring for sound of the signs, addressing the ruler was very similar with today’s way of addressing the contemporary rulers.
We were able to identify 2 words that are preceding the personal name of the pharaoh as 2 superlatives, in original from right to left:
The Greek words ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ (read from left to right) correspond completely to these titles.
We have concluded that after the title follows the name of the pharaoh, which is not formal in today’s sense, but is rather descriptive:
This Macedonian name is translated into ancient Greek with the words:
The word ΔΕΟΥinancient Greek is equivalent to the English gods, and the wordΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣmeans That one to whom gods are admiring (who is beloved by the gods). Theaccuracy of the suggested way of reading and wiring for sound is more than clear from this. The method of forming personal names with word Bogo [bogo] is frequent in contemporary Macedonian language. The following names are very frequent: Богомил [bogomil], Боголјуб [bogoljub], Боговид [bogovid], Божидар [bozhidar], Божана [bozhana] and others.
The family name of the pharaoh, i.e. the name of the dynasty was recognized in the expressions (read from right to left):
The first word ΠΤΟΛ is a term for town, E is a preposition, andΜΑΙΟΥ is a goddess of (the) earth of the ancient Greeks. This practically means that the term ΠΤΟΛ Ε ΜΑΙΟΥ means in ancient Greek town of the goddess of (the) earth, which coincides completely with our reading of the corresponding term in the middle text of the stone. Excluding the first two epithets that precede the expression beloved by Ptah and pharaohs’ family, we find that ancient Greek text and the demotic text at those places are very much the same.
When the pharaoh is mentioned with all his titles and full name and family name, or when only his family name is mentioned, it always ends with the expression (read from right to left):
That is equivalent to English:
Is Me Called necklace of necklaces of the Egyptians from
At this point, we are able to compare the readings obtained by our proposed methodology with the readings of the emperor’s title, name, surname and nickname in , , and . According to previous part of text in this section, it is very clear that we have a significant difference between our reading compared with readings presented in , , and , were the respective authors assumed that the order of words in emperor’s mentioning in the demotic text is literally identical with the ancient Greek text. Consequently, according to that assumption, the word Ptolemy is the emperor’s first name. This is a consequence of the fact that the word Ptolemy follows the title of the pharaoh (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ) in the ancient Greek text. However, we think that the word Ptolemy, which is actually the name of the dynasty, must denotes the surname (family name), and as a consequence that each ruler has a different personal name. This is in accordance with the ancient Greek text as well. Additionally, it is very clear that the order of words in the demotic text is not the same with the order of corresponding words found in the ancient Greek text in this case. In , , and , in the demotic text, after the title of the pharaoh, according to previously mentioned “very logical” assumption the authors obtains the corresponding sequence of signs in the demotic text. The problem with obtained sequence of signs for Ptolemy, as a consequence of this assumption, is that 10 letters used originally in the ancient Greek text for the word Ptolemy are substituted with 12 signs that are syllabic by their nature. This should be very wrong, because if we have in mind that the demotic text has 32 lines, and the ancient Greek one has 54 lines, by the very simple proportion, the word Ptolemy in demotic text must be substituted with maximum 6 syllabic signs. Consequently, the sequence of 12 syllabic signs, which according to , , and , denotes word Ptolemy, must be connected with the superlative and the personal name of the pharaoh, which are denoted by 18 letters in ancient Greek text. As a result, by applying our methodology and previously discussed assumptions, we obtain the following reading for the longest text form of mentioning the pharaoh:
In original demotic text on the stone:
Reading of the original demotic according to our methodology and wiring for sound (from right to left):
оТеЗ еМẹСИаН ẹЦИаН ИẹЈеВиД оМогоБ ьЈоТ уНеВẹЖьЈаН аЦНеМИẹЅаНьЈаН
еВаЦаПọуЃ аН ẹЗНаН НеВẹЗаН оМ ьJ еВиШаН Л оТоП ọ еЗеВоБ
otez emẹsian ẹcian iẹjevid omоgob ьjot unevẹhzian acnemiezdanian ]
[ evastapoujg an ẹznan nevẹzan om ьj evihsan lotop o ezevob
Reading of the same text from left to right:
НаЈьНаЅẹИМеНЦа НаЈьЖẹВеНу ТоЈь Богомо ДиВеЈẹИ НаИЦẹ НаИСẹМе ЗеТо
БоВеЗẹ ь ПоТоЛ НаШиВе Jь Mo НаЗẹВеН НаНЗẹ На ЃуьПаЦаВе
[nainadzeimenca naizhevenu toj bogomo divejei naice naiseme zeto
boveze o potol nashive jь mo nazeven nanze na gjuopatsave]
Equivalent in English
Our most honourable name (Pharaoh), for ever living (ethernal), the gods admired him, the most respected, the most family, beloved of the rising sun (Ptah), from the town on the stone built,is me called necklace of necklaces of the Egyptians from Upper Egypt.
According to authors in , for the same sequence of signs, the reading in English is the following:
The pharaoh Ptolemy, the ever living, the beloved of Ptah, the god who appeared, whose goodness (or, beauty) is splendid.
According to the ancient Greek text, in the last line the pharaoh orders (in the following succession) the decree to be written in 3 scripts and to be placed in the temples of (the) first, (the) second and (the) third rank near the statue of the pharaoh, although just here a part of the stone is broken off (the part is missing).
In the analyzed text, the pharaoh’s order was identified in a different succession, first in which three classes of the temples of gods, then in which three regions of the country a stone should be placed, and finally, in which scripts in the language of the three circles of the population it should be written.
The pharaoh divided his wish into two orders, and because of that we will analyze the text in the last row as two orders.
The first order begins with the word ordered and the expression to be made of stone, in the original written as:
The order continues with:
This is Equivalent in English:
In stone constructions (temples) of: God Snake of the Mouth, the God of
The order continues with the names of the three regions of the land, the first is a (main) city of
In respect of the Greek text, here we find significantly more precise information which indirectly proves the primary importance of this text in respect of the other two. Having in mind that in that period
The second order begins with the expression, which is equivalent in English To be on stone embroidered (written), written in the original with the expression:
In the analyzed text, a single identification is used for stating the identity of the scripts and languages in which the decree was to be written, or a social circle in a multi – ethnic society of that time Egypt.
The Supreme (High) Priests, presented with the original expression
We can conclude from the contents of the second order that for the upper text (hieroglyphs – sacred script) the expression script of the Supreme (High) priests was used. The expression script of the Alive Masters was used for the middle script (demotic), and those were the Ancient Macedonians, and the term the Danai was used for the lowest text (ancient Greek).
The word ΕΓΧΩΡΙΟΙΣ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΣΙΝ in the 54th row of original ancient Greek (Danai) text, translated as native script for the ancient Greek text, according to the Greek-Croatian vocabulary,  (p. 116), is translated as domovinski (the script of the land). The appropriate word used in 32nd row of the demotic text is translated in the  as the script of the documents. By implementing our methodology for this script we read the expression the script of the Alive Masters. The term the script of the land, the term the script of the documents, the term the script of books, as well as the term the script of the Alive Masters is very close with the term official script. Having this in mind, we can conclude that the script and the language used in the middle text of the Rosetta Stone, are in fact the script and the language of the Ancient Macedonians.
According to the analysis presented in previous section, we can compare the results obtained by implementation of proposed methodology with the translations of the proper text within known literature.
In original demotic text on the stone:
[niọhsan ogob nusaan e ogob ẹzu an o ajimz ogob ievьhsan a nevievьhsan ivьj]
еВИẹСоЈаНиСаН ẹЦИаН ИọВ оТоП ьуЃАаН ẹЦИаН ИọВ
[eviẹs ọjanis an ecian iov otopьujga an ecian iov]
ИНаНьТаНọЧоЈьВаНогоБ ẹЦИаН ИọВ
[inanьt an ọhc ọjьvan ogob ecian iov]
оТЛадопсоГ еВẹЗаН ИоМ еЃИ оТЛадопсоГ еВẹЗаН ИоМ еНеЗеВаНиШаН еДьБ иВьЈ
[otladopsog evẹzan iom ejgi otladopsog evẹzan iom enezevan ihs an edьb ivьj]
оТаЦ иШ ВВ аЦьЈеРаН еВьЈаНeД аН оМоНьЈаН аТЛадопсоГ еВẹЖаН ИоМ ьЈаПаН И
[otac ihs vv acьjeran evьjaned an omonjan atladopsog evẹhzan iom]
ЈьВи НаШьВеИВеН А НаШьВеИ Бого Змија О На УЗẹ Бого Е НаАСуН Бого НаШọИН
[jьvi nashьveiven a nashьvei bogo zmija o na uze bogo e na asun bogo nashoin]
ВọИ НаИЦẹ НаАЃуь ПоТо ВọИ НаИЦẹ На СиНаЈо СẹИВе
[voi naice na agjuьpoto voi naice na sinajo sieve]
[voi naice bogo navьjo cho na thьnani]
ЈьВи БьДе На Ши НаВеЗеНе МоИ НаЗẹВе ГосподаЛТо ИЃе МоИ НаЗẹВе ГосподаЛТо
[jьvi bьde na shi navezene moi nazeve gospodalto igje nazeve gospodalto]
И На ПаЈь МоИ НаЖẹВе ГосподаЛТа НаЈьНоМо На ДеНаЈьВе НаРеЈьЦа ВВ Ши ЦаТо
[i na pajь moi nazheve gospodalta najьnomo na denajьve narejьca vv shi cato]
Equivalent in English
Ordered to be made of stone into stone constructions (temples) of: God Snake of the Mouth, the God of Aswan and our God in yours most respected (main) city of Egypt, yours most respected into all of the Sinai, yours most respected (the) greatest god Cho of Thnani; Ordered to be on stone embroidered (written) (with, using) the Supreme (High) Priests, the Alive Masters, and the end the Danai scripts in stone hard.
According to authors in , for the same sequence of signs, the English translation of the demotic text is the following:
And the Decree shall be written upon a tablet of hard stone in the writing of the words of the god, in the writing of letters (or, books) and in the writing of the Ionians, and they shall set it up in the first temples, [and] in the second temples, [and] in the third temples.
From the example of the content of the last line of the decree, which in all probability has the same content with the three texts, due to the different structure of the languages it is not possible to accept that those texts are totally identical.
In the analyzed text we find names of territories and peoples in the corresponding territories.
Since the text in the stones primarily refers to the
That is equivalent to English
This name comes from the analysis of the pharaoh’s order written in the last line in demotic text, in the part which gave the territories where, in the corresponding temples of certain gods, the stone was to be placed. The analysis of the text in the last line is shown in detail in the previous chapter.
The name of
The name of Lower Egypt in original is:
In order to prove that our assertion is correct, that the terms ЃьЗе [gjьze] and ЃbПа [gjьpa] in ancient Macedonian match the terms Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt respectively, a thorough analysis was conducted of the places in the text where in the ancient Greek text these two parts of ancient Egypt are mentioned, and a comparison was made with the places where the two previously mentioned terms were found in the ancient Macedonian text. For instance, the following is written in the 12th line of the demotic text for the terms Lower and
(equivalent in English On/Of Lower and On/Of Upper Egypt)
which completely corresponds with the mention of Upper Egypt and
In the analyzed text, while stating the names of the pharaoh’s ancestors, in the 22nd line of the middle text of the stone, the peoples whom they ruled are also mentioned. After the name of the Philopator, for the peoples whom he ruled was written in the original:
Read from left to right:
На ДеНаЈьВе ọ На ЃьПаНе
[na denajьve o na gjьpane]
which is equivalent in English - To the Danai (the Greeks) from
Read from left to right:
На ДеНаЈьВе ọ На ЃьПаМо ДеНаЈьВе ọ На ЃьПаНе
[na denajьve o na gjьpamo denajьve o na gjьpane]
Which is equivalent in English - To the Danai (the Greeks), To the Danai of Upper Egypt (the Greeks from Upper Egypt) and To the Egyptian of
It is interesting to consider the third ethnic group besides the Danai and the Egyptian from
Read from left to right:
ДеНаЈьВе На ЃьПа
[denajьve na gjьpa]
In English this denotes the Danai from
In the middle text of the Rosetta Stone we find the names and functions of many gods. As a result of their titles, which literally meant a characteristic of the language and writing of the ancient Macedonians, we were able to identify names of several Egyptian gods even in the original way that they were called in ancient Egyptian. In the analyzed text we also found the names, most probably, of all the gods of the ancient Macedonians.
According to our research, in the middle text we were able to read the names of most probably all gods of the ancient Macedonians. It is most characteristic that almost all the gods’ names are monosyllabic. Their names and functions are the following:
We concluded the god Ѕе[dze] (by his function god of the summers) was a supreme god because in the text he is addressed very similarly to a pharaoh, i.e. with two epithets in the superlative, in the original it is the following:
Read from left to right:
НаЈьНаЅẹИМеНЦа НаЈьЅẹИ МоИ НаЗẹВе Бого ЛТоИ
[najьnadzeimenca najьdzei moi nazeve bogo ltoi]
That is equivalent to English: The most honorable, the brightest according to our way of saying the god of the summers.
The style of addressing the Egyptians gods is especially interesting in the text. After the name of the god as he was called in ancient Egyptian, there follows in addition the way he was named in ancient Macedonian. In the original it was written down in the following way:
That is equivalent to English: The god Ananetsa of the Egyptians (the god of renovation), according to our way of saying the god Lee, as well as the expression
That is equivalent to English Ananeta god LTCHa goddess of the light ray/sunrise)
In the ancient Greek text these gods were written as Osiris, which corresponds to Ananetsa, and Isis, corresponding to Ananeta. We think that the gods’ names in ancient Egyptian must be different from their ancient Greek names, as well as from their ancient Macedonian names, which is identical with the translation of the hieroglyphic text in . This is additionally proved by reading the middle text of the stone, where we find the gods’ names as previously stated.
In this sense, we find in the 23rd row of the middle text the direct proof how ancient Egyptian was referring one ancient Macedonians’ god, as follows:
Read from left to right:
НаАШтẹ Бого Хọ А ВọИ НаЗẹВе ГосподаЛТо и НаЗẹВе ГосподаЛТо НаРọЦа
[naashte bogo ho a voi nazeve godpodalto i nazeve gospodalto naroca]
Which is equivalent to English:
Our the God Họ, you adress him The Master and you address him The Master of the scripts hard (The Master of the sacred scripts).
The basic assumption of our analysis was that in the middle text of the Rosetta Stone a syllabic script of only the consonant – vowel type is used, with the assumption that the pronunciation of the consonants and vowels are the same as in the contemporary Macedonian language. This assumption means a new direction in studying the demotic script and syllabic scripts from that period, unlike the concept of current scholarship of the wiring for sound of only the syllabic signs with consonants, while at the same time ignoring the vowels.
The research to date has resulted into identification and wiring for sound of the syllabic symbols for 27 consonants and 8 vowels. More than half of the consonants (14) are denoted using asymmetric signs which can be in 8 positions on the writing surface (plane) and in that way syllables of one consonant with 8 vowels can be written in a monosemic (unambiguous) way. The remaining consonants are denoted using symmetrical or slanting signs which can take 4 positions on the writing surface (plane) and thus write syllables of one consonant and 4 vowels in a monosemic (unambiguous) way. Some of these consonants make the fifth syllable with the vowel и [i] by using a sign for an isolated consonant (virama) and next to it writing on a vertical line, which is the sign for и [i]. Of the 8 necessary signs for pure vowels, 7 signs have been identified for writing of isolated vowels, of which the signs for и [i] and for а [a] are most frequently used. For writing isolated consonant a virama was used, whereas for frequently used isolated consonant н [n], a slanting line is used.
Besides writing the signs one next to another, the signs were also written one over another or one on another, where the sound value of the basic signs was not changed, but they were interconnected with the preposition на [na] (equivalent to English prepositions on, at) (ligatures). The frequent use of the preposition на [na] is even today a characteristic of the Macedonian language.
Wiring for sound of the basic signs of the analyzed text and defining the noted rules for the writing of ligatures was carried out by an iterative procedure of singling out and recognition of about 220 words and lot of these have preserved their meaning in some dialects of the contemporary Macedonian language.
Although we do not consider that we had found out all the secrets of the analyzed script and moreover learnt the used language, according to the presented results we can say that the middle text of the Rosetta Stone was written in a script and language of the masters of
This text refers to the same event as the two other texts on the stone, but no identity should be sought and the identity cannot be founded. We say this because we have concluded, by deciphering the order written in the last line of the text that the records were written in scripts and languages of 3 social circles, the Supreme Priests, Alive Masters and the Danai. The script and the language of the ancient Macedonians was the official script and language of the Macedonian Empire or as it is known in contemporary scholarship, the ‘script and language in which the laws and the official documents were written.’ The mistake in current scholarship is that to learn the middle text of the Rosetta Stone it prefers the ancient Egyptian language (called new Egyptian in the available literature) and the area of
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