3. Mentioning the name of the pharaoh - the longest form

Mentioning the name of the pharaoh in the analyzed text is the most frequently occurring composition of words. There are several different ways of mentioning the personal and/or surname, and the nickname of the pharaoh, but in this section text we are presenting the longest form. The other forms of mentioning the emperor in the analyzed text are with smaller lengths. According to the findings of our research and in accordance with the suggested wiring for sound of the signs, addressing the ruler was very similar with today’s way of addressing the contemporary rulers.

3.1. The title of the pharaoh

We were able to identify 2 words that are preceding the personal name of the pharaoh as 2 superlatives, in original from right to left:

The Greek words ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ (read from left to right) correspond completely to these titles.

3.2. The personal name of the pharaoh

We have concluded that after the title follows the name of the pharaoh, which is not formal in today’s sense, but is rather descriptive:

This Macedonian name is translated into ancient Greek with the words:


The word ΔΕΟΥinancient Greek is equivalent to the English gods, and the wordΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣmeans That one to whom gods are admiring (who is beloved by the gods). Theaccuracy of the suggested way of reading and wiring for sound is more than clear from this. The method of forming personal names with word Bogo [bogo] is frequent in contemporary Macedonian language. The following names are very frequent: Богомил [bogomil], Боголјуб [bogoljub], Боговид [bogovid], Божидар [bozhidar], Божана [bozhana] and others.

3.3. The family name of the pharaoh

The family name of the pharaoh, i.e. the name of the dynasty was recognized in the expressions (read from right to left):

The first two words are the epithets to the pharaohs’ family. After those epithets follows the expression beloved by Ptah, and at the end the pharaohs’ family name. For the expression beloved by Ptah and pharaohs’ family name in ancient Greek text the following expression was used for translation (in original):
Equivalent in English: Ptolemy, the ever living, beloved by Ptah ….
Unlike the present day scholarship, we suggest that the first word of the previous expression (the word for Ptolemy in ancient Greek text) could be divided as follows:

The first word ΠΤΟΛ is a term for town, E is a preposition, andΜΑΙΟΥ is a goddess of (the) earth of the ancient Greeks. This practically means that the term ΠΤΟΛ Ε ΜΑΙΟΥ means in ancient Greek town of the goddess of (the) earth, which coincides completely with our reading of the corresponding term in the middle text of the stone. Excluding the first two epithets that precede the expression beloved by Ptah and pharaohs’ family, we find that ancient Greek text and the demotic text at those places are very much the same.

3.4. The nickname of the pharaoh

When the pharaoh is mentioned with all his titles and full name and family name, or when only his family name is mentioned, it always ends with the expression (read from right to left):

From left to right:
     Mo    НаЗВеН   НаНЗ    На   ЃуПаЦаВе
[jь    mo   nazeven    nanze     na   gjuopacave]


That is equivalent to English:

Is Me Called necklace of necklaces of the Egyptians from Upper Egypt.


3.5. Comparison of readings

At this point, we are able to compare the readings obtained by our proposed methodology with the readings of the emperor’s title, name, surname and nickname in [4], [5], and [6]. According to previous part of text in this section, it is very clear that we have a significant difference between our reading compared with readings presented in [4], [5], and [6], were the respective authors assumed that the order of words in emperor’s mentioning in the demotic text is literally identical with the ancient Greek text. Consequently, according to that assumption, the word Ptolemy is the emperor’s first name. This is a consequence of the fact that the word Ptolemy follows the title of the pharaoh (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ) in the ancient Greek text. However, we think that the word Ptolemy, which is actually the name of the dynasty, must denotes the surname (family name), and as a consequence that each ruler has a different personal name. This is in accordance with the ancient Greek text as well. Additionally, it is very clear that the order of words in the demotic text is not the same with the order of corresponding words found in the ancient Greek text in this case. In [4], [5], and [6], in the demotic text, after the title of the pharaoh, according to previously mentioned “very logical” assumption the authors obtains the corresponding sequence of signs in the demotic text. The problem with obtained sequence of signs for Ptolemy, as a consequence of this assumption, is that 10 letters used originally in the ancient Greek text for the word Ptolemy are substituted with 12 signs that are syllabic by their nature. This should be very wrong, because if we have in mind that the demotic text has 32 lines, and the ancient Greek one has 54 lines, by the very simple proportion, the word Ptolemy in demotic text must be substituted with maximum 6 syllabic signs. Consequently, the sequence of 12 syllabic signs, which according to [4], [5], and [6], denotes word Ptolemy, must be connected with the superlative and the personal name of the pharaoh, which are denoted by 18 letters in ancient Greek text. As a result, by applying our methodology and previously discussed assumptions, we obtain the following reading for the longest text form of mentioning the pharaoh:

In original demotic text on the stone:

Reading of the original demotic according to our methodology and wiring for sound (from right to left):

оТеЗ еМẹСИаН ẹЦИаН ИẹЈеВиД оМогоБ ьЈоТ уНеВẹЖьЈаН аЦНеМИẹЅаНьЈаН

еВаЦаПуЃ аН ЗНаН НеВЗаН оМ ьJ еВиШаН Л оТоП  еЗеВоБ

  otez emẹsian ẹcian ijevid omоgob ьjot unevẹhzian acnemiezdanian ]

[ evastapoujg an ẹznan nevẹzan om ьj evihsan lotop o ezevob


Reading of the same text from left to right:

НаЈьНаЅИМеНЦа НаЈьЖВеНу ТоЈь Богомо ДиВеЈИ НаИЦ НаИСМе ЗеТо

БоВеЗẹ ь ПоТоЛ НаШиВе Mo НаЗẹВеН НаНЗẹ На ЃуьПаЦаВе

[nainadzeimenca naizhevenu toj bogomo divejei naice naiseme zeto

boveze o potol nashive jь mo nazeven nanze na gjuopatsave]


Equivalent in English

Our most honourable name (Pharaoh), for ever living (ethernal), the gods admired him, the most respected, the most family, beloved of the rising sun (Ptah), from the town on the stone built,is me called necklace of necklaces of the Egyptians from Upper Egypt.


According to authors in [4], for the same sequence of signs, the reading in English is the following:
The pharaoh Ptolemy, the ever living, the beloved of Ptah, the god who appeared, whose goodness (or, beauty) is splendid.